• synonym phenomenon (ظاهرة الترادف):

The phenomenon of synonym in the Arabic language besides other phenomena is the reason for the richness of the Arabic language and the richness of the Arabic lexicon so that the speaker can express the thing or the meaning with more than one word without confusion in the understanding of the hearer

The synonym means that two or more words indicate one meaning and is not meant by it to make the name of the thing and its description as synonymous of one meaning, but two independent names indicate one meaning. Synonym is the same meaning of many words such as (Asaad  أَسَد) (Layth – لَيْث) both meaning Lion

And in the verbs, such as (Jalasa – جَلَسَ) and (Qa’ada – قَعَدَ) both meaning sat down and (Qama – قَام) and  (Waqafa – وَقَفَ) both meaning stood up

The linguists differed about how synonym existed. A team of scientists said that the synonym came from a tribe or a people who had a word on a certain meaning. Another tribe was far had another word with the same meaning of the previous tribe, and the two words were known for one meaning over time. Another group of scientists said that the synonym came because one tribe appreciate a word for a certain meaning, and after a time the people themselves preferred another word for the same meaning, so the meaning of the word became two or more words

In the past, the linguists differed about the existence of synonym. Does it exist in the language or not? A team said that each word is different from another word in letters, there must be a difference in meaning such as (Jalasa – جَلَسَ) and (Qa’ada – قَعَدَ) two words of one meaning. Another team said that there is no synonym between them, because there is a small difference between them in meaning. And there is a team said that they are two words with the same meaning without difference in meaning which is the synonym and said this opinion the most senior scientists and modernists, i.e. the most knowledgeable said that there is a synonym in the language

  • polysemy phenomenon (ظاهرة المشترك اللفظي):

It is in fact the opposite of the synonym, meaning that each word indicates many meanings and examples of common verbal in Arabic language, the word (Alkhal – الخَال), it means the brother of the mother and the clouds and the huge camel and other meanings. so, a one word referred to many meanings, such as the word (ِAl-Ain – العَين) means the eye that we see with, the water well, the spy and other meanings. There is no doubt that the common verbal exists in many languages of the world other than the Arabic language. It is also mentioned that some scholars denied the polysemy phenomenon in Arabic who were a few scientists who said that. It is a very clear phenomenon that appears in the texts of Arabic language and even exists in the Quran. There are several reasons for the existing of the so-called polysemy phenomenon in Arabic language, the most important difference lies in the dialects of the early Arabic, such as the naming of several tribes one word on different meanings according to each tribe and when the scientists wrote dictionaries they wrote the meaning of one word by each tribe, for example; the word (Al-Houb – الحُوب) which means an iniquity in one tribe, destruction in the second tribe, a sister in the third tribe, a girl according to a forth tribe, and when the scientists put dictionaries they wrote that the meaning of (Al-Houb – الحُوب) is the sin and loss and the sister and girl. In the end, it is a phenomenon that shows the richness of the Arabic language. A person can express many meanings in one word, and we can know the meaning according to context of the sentence and the text.

  • Antonym phenomenon (ظاهرة التضاد):

 Antonym means to say one word on the meaning and the opposite. An example of it in the Arabic language is to say (Al-Hameem – الحَميم) which means cold water and also means hot water and another example as to say the word (Al-Aqel – العَاقل) which means the wise person and also say it on the mad person, also the word (Al-jawn – الجَون) which means the white and the black colors, also the word (Jalal – جَلل) for the small matter and the great matter.

This is the meaning of antonym in Arabic is to say a word for a certain meaning and also to say it to reverse this meaning. There is a difference between the Arabic linguists, some said there is an antonym in the language, because the meanings are too many and the words are few and there is a team denied the antonym in the language because this makes us to understand the meaning of the word. Does it mean that meaning or another one? But in any case, the most ancient and modern Arabic scholars said there is an antonym in Arabic and you will understand the meaning of the word exactly according to the meaning of the sentence. There are many reasons for the antonym, for example, optimism as the Arab called the patient person (Saleem – سَليم) which means originally the one who is healthy, the Arab was saying it for the patient person also to be optimism. And also, from the reasons for the existing of the antonym in the language is the sarcastic or irony, as the Arab was calling the person who His mind is not good (Aqel – عَاقل) and it is originally said to the person of good mind. the Arab said it to others as ridicule.