Quran is the greatest book for mankind, it is the words of Allah written and spoken. It is the only book that is attributed to Allah Almighty Lord of the heavens and earth. It is a book that cannot be distorted or changed because Allah saved it.
The Quran reached us through the so-called (The frequency) i.e., the transfer of a very large group of people memorize the Quran to another large group also memorize the Quran correctly and it is impossible to agree on lying. (frequency) is as all people see the sun so, no one can lie to them and say I do not see the sun so The Quran has passed on to us. Praise be to Allah that He saves it from distortion.
Quran consists of 114 Surah which is divided into Makiya chapters and madaniyyah chapters according to the Prophet’s migration incident.
The Makkan Quran is what came down before the emigration and it does not matter where it came down, and the madinan Quran is what came down after the migration, no matter where. And the number of the Makkan surah are 82 Surah, and the number of madinan surah are 20 Surah and the scholars have different opinions of 12 surah on whether it is makkan or madinan, they are:
“Al-Fatihah, Arra`d, Mutafifin, Alqadr, Albayyinah, Al-Zalzalah, Al-Rahman, Al-Saff, Al-Tagaben, Al-ikhlas, Al-Falaq, and An-nas.”
* Characteristics of the Makkan Quran:
- The verses are short and style is severe because it was addressing non-Muslims who deny the right and what they do, such as the killing of small girls and taking orphan`s money and so on.
- The makkan chapters talk about the doctrine, monotheism, the Day of Resurrection, punishment, Paradise and hellfire.
- It talks often about the stories of the prophets and the previous nations and speak about the bad actions of the polytheists too.
- It often begins with (O people.) because it addresses all people both Muslims and non-Muslims.
- every surah in which the story of Adam and Satan is Makkan except Surah Baqarah.
* Characteristics of the Madinan Quran:
1- The verses are long and style is easy because most of the interviewers know Allah like Muslims or the people of the book.
2- The call in it start with (O you believers).
3- The verses of the madinan Quran is talking about acts of worship such as prayer, Zakat, fasting, hajj, jihad, war, peace, marriage, divorce and treatments in general.
4- It talks to the people of the book of the Jews and Christians and calls them to Islam in a good way.
- The madinan Quran is characterized by have long chapters also such as Surat al-Baqarah and others.
- All the madinan chapters are talking about the hypocrites and their danger and their souls and warning of them except Surat Al-ankabout.
In any case, Allah SWT strengthens the heart of the one who read the Quran and learn it. It is a powerful reason in changing your life for the best as long as you are sincere in your intention for the sake of Allah only and read it as the Prophet and the companions and the early Muslims have read it.